Words To Remember

"The truth is this--genealogy is our living, and we are busy every minute, [and we] could use more hours." --Jane Wethy Foley, 1942

Friday, December 2, 2011

Some Early Connecticut Marriages

The following list is taken from Early Connecticut Marriages: Third Book, recorded at Lyme, CT, of marriages at the New Haven Second Church.

[p. 132]

(By Mr. G. Beckwith)

Jasper Peck & Sarah Clark, Nov. 25, 1731

William Clark & Hannah Peck, Nov. 30, 1731

Rev. Jonathan Parsons & Phebe Griswold, Dec. 14, 1731

(By Rev. George Griswold)

Abithai Bingham of Windham & Mary Tubbs, Dec. 28, 1731

Philip Beckwith & Abigail Harvey, Feb. 17, 1732

Soloman Gee & Deborah Huntley, March 29, 1732

Reynold Beckwith & Martha Marvin, April 4, 1732

Matthew Marvin & Mary Beckwith, April 20, 1732

Benjamin Huntly & Lydia Beckwith, April 28, 1732


Joseph Alger & Mary Huntly, April 28, 1732

John Robbins & Ruth Alger, Nov. 2, 1732

John Noyes & Mary Hudson, Dec. 14, 1732

Elisha Wright of New London & Elizabeth Lester, April 3, 1733

Richard Waite & Elizabeth Marvin, Nov. 8, 1733

Jonathan Reid & Elizabeth Smith, March 14, 1734

John Sears & Elizabeth Watrous, Jane 13, 1734

Samuel Court & Abigail Marven, Nov. 7, 1734

Joseph Harvard of Branford & Elizabeth Pinnuck, Dec. 10, 1734

Isaac Dunham of Hebron & Elizabeth Watrous, Feb. 9, 1735

Joseph Lay & Mercy Deming, Feb. 6, 1735

Thomas Baker & widow Hannah Huntley, March 6, 1735

Jonathan Beebe of New London & Hannah Lewis, March 18, 1735

John Petty & Martha Cogsel, April 24, 1735

Robert Ames of New London & Deborah Brockway, May 15, 1735

Samuel Lord & Catharine Ransom, June 26, 1735

Nathaniel Clark, Jr., & Lydia Peck, July 10, 1735

Joseph Tubbs & Luce Robbins, Jan. 14, 1736

Timothy Mather & Sarah Lay, Feb. 12, 1736

William Ely & widow Mary Noyes, Feb. 19, 1736

John Peck & Catharine Lay, March 4, 1736

Robert Miller Martha April 29, 1736

Rev. George Griswold & Elizabeth Lee, July 20, 1736

Simon Tubbs & Sarah Wait, Dec. 7, 1736

John Lay, 3d, & Hannah Lee, Jan. 27, 1737

John Hazen & Deborah Peck, March 10, 1737

James Marvin & Ruth Mather, May 25, 1737

Thomas Taylor of Maryland & Esther Robbins, Oct. 6, 1737

Uriah Roland & Lydia Lee, Oct. 14, 1737

Jesse Minor of New London & Jane Watrous, Nov. 3, 1737

Nathaniel Beckwith & Jane Brockway, Oct. 26, 1738

Nathan Grisbie of Branford & Elizabeth Wade, Dec. 12, 1738

John Adget & Abigail Graves, Jan. 18, 1739

Robert Lay & Lydia Tinker, Feb. 1, 1739

Samuel Beckwith of Norwich & Miriam Marvin, Feb. 1, 1739

Elisha Marvin & Catharine Mather, May 17, 1739


Daniel Ayre & Esther Champion, April 17, 1740

Benjamin Hyde & Abigail Lee, May 1, 1740

Benoni Hillard & Martha Lord, July 6, 1740

Ezra Lee & Rebekah Southworth, Oct. 9, 1740

Benaiah Bushhal of Norwich & Hannah Griswold, Nov. 5, 1740

Ensign Isaac Watrous & widow Mary Lee, Dec. 23, 1740

Samuel Waller & Elizabeth Brockway, Nov. 5, 1740

John Anderson & Elizabeth Minor, Feb. 12, 1741

Eleazar Clarke of Lyme & Sarah Clarke of Nantucket, Oct. 10, 1741

Eleazar Mather & Ann Watrous, Nov. 5, 1741

Jonathan Smith & Jane Lewis, Nov. 10, 1741

Gershom Gardner & Susannah Smith, Dec. 10, 1741

Amos Tinker & Hannah Minor, June 6, 1742

George Dorr & Sarah Marvin, March 16, 1742

John Scovill & Sarah Alger, Nov. 3, 1742

Benjamin Marvin & Deborah Mather, Nov. 11, 1742

David Huntley & Mary Tinker, Dec. 2, 1742

Stephen Beckwith & Jerusha Watrous, Dec. 16, 1742

David Peck & Abigail Southworth, June 16, 1743

Benjamin Niles & Lure Sill, June 30, 1743

Stephen Champion & Abigail Broos (?), July 11, 1743

Joseph Waite & Margaret Beckwith, Aug. 10, 1743

Nathaniel Peck & Lure Mather, May 24, 1744

Andrew Sill & Phebe Mather, June 29, 1744

Stephen Lee, Jr, & Mehetable Marvin, Sept. 25, 1744

Elijah Lothrop of Norwich & Susannah Lord, Jan. 23, 1745

Simon & -----, Jan. 31, 1745

John Mather & Mercy Higgins, June 13, 1745

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

Hackensack Reformed Dutch Church Marriage Records: A

The dates given are the dates of the first proclamation of banns, unless otherwise specified.

Hackensack Reformed Dutch Church Marriage Records: Preface

Hackensack Village Green

From: Nelson, William, Documents relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey, Vol. XXII, Marriage Records 1665-1800 (Paterson, NJ: The Press and Pub. Co.) 1900, pp. 467-469.

Tuesday, September 13, 2011


Tulipmania (or its Dutch equivalent tulpenmanie or tulpomanie and several other terms) was the term for the speculative stock market scandal created by the astronomical prices commanded by tulip bulbs in Holland in the early 1600s, just a few decades after the first tulip bulb arrived there.

At the peak of tulipmania in February 1637, tulip contracts sold for more than 20 times the annual income of a skilled craftsman. It is generally considered the first recorded speculative bubble. The term tulipmania has often been used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble.

As a cautionary tale, here's a brief re-telling of the original story, circa 1637.  In 17th century Holland, fortunes were doubled overnight as speculators bargained on promise without hard collateral.  Poor men became rich and rich men became filthy rich--all without doing a day's work.  In the wildly speculative marketplace of the late 1630s, even the ultimate threat of government crackdowns couldn't halt the spiraling prices of the hottest commodity in the Dutch Golden Age--tulip bulbs.

Semper Augustus owed its brilliant stripes to a tulip virus.
In a more human sense, tulipmania recalls a time and tale of coveting beauty and then status that soon became a roller-coaster ride of greed, corruption and hysterical actions.  Documents from the time show collateral bartered (or lost) in the frenzy of trading that included whatever people had on hand: houses and meadows, furnishings, dowries, farm animals, paintings, barrels of beer, cheese--even marriage bedsteads!

The tulip had been introduced to Europe in the mid-16th century from the Ottoman Empire and became very popular in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). Originally a wild flower tamed by the Turks, cultivated tulips came to Holland by way of Carolus Clusius (French: Charles de l'Écluse), director of the Royal Medicinal Garden in Vienna, who successfully raised the first European tulips during the 16th century.

In 1593, Clusius became director of the botanical garden at the University of Leyden [now Leiden], bringing his tulip bulbs with him. There, he planted his collection of tulip bulbs sent to him from Turkey by the ambassador of the Holy Roman Emperor (Ferdinand I) to the Sultan.  These bulbs were able to tolerate the harsher conditions of the Low Countries and it was shortly thereafter they began to grow in popularity. Both thrived in the Dutch climate and an industry was born.

The recent loss of the Southern Netherlands to Spain--particularly the large trading centers of Antwerp and Bruges--as a result of the war caused the rich Calvinist merchants of these cities to flee to the north. Many migrated to Amsterdam, which was at the time a tiny port but which was quickly transformed into one of the most important ports in the world in the 17th century. The exodus can be described as 'creating a new Antwerp.' 

By the early 1600s, which coincided with the first interest in the idea of gardening for decoration rather than solely for food production, the flower rapidly became a coveted luxury item and a status symbol. It also corresponded with a lull in the Thirty Years' War. Several other factors also contributed to the flowering of trade, industry, the arts and the sciences during this period.

Some have pointed out that tulips were useless. The flower had no scent, no medicinal purpose, tastes disgusting (as many Dutch discovered during the "Hungerwinter" of 1944-45) and was apparently no aphrodisiac. Most varieties bloom only a week or two a year.  But the new Dutch gardeners and collectors appreciated plants for their beauty, not their utility. These merchants and craftsmen grew tulips much as they collected paintings.

Indeed, many tulip traders were also art collectors, dealers or painters. They sometimes traded art for bulbs, though paintings never approached the prices paid for flowers. The best analogy for tulipmania may therefore not be the dot-com boom but today’s art market, in which a work by a young artist can cost as much as a London flat. Buyers of tulips chased beauty and status as much as profit.

The development and profusion of more tulip varieties quickly followed. They were classified in groups: colored tulips of red, yellow, or white were known as Couleren, but it was the multi-colored Rosen (red or pink on white background), Violetten (purple or lilac on white background),and, to a lesser extent, the Bizarden (red, brown or purple on yellow background) that were the most popular. These spectacular and highly sought-after tulip bulbs would grow flowers with vivid colors, lines, and flames on the petals, as a result, it is now understood, of being infected with a tulip-specific virus known as the "Tulip breaking virus," a type of mosaic virus.

Examples of Bizarden bulbs
Growers named their new varieties with exalted titles. Many early forms were prefixed Admirael, "admiral," often combined with the growers' names: "Admirael van der Eijck" was perhaps the most highly regarded of about 50 so named. Generael, "general," was another prefix which found its way into the names of around 30 varieties. Later came varieties with even more superlative names, derived from Alexander the Great or Scipio, or even "Admiral of Admirals" and "General of Generals." However, naming could be haphazard and varieties were highly variable in quality.  Most of these varieties have now died out, though similar "broken" tulips continue in the trade.

Admirael van der Eijck
Tulips grow from bulbs and can be propagated through both seeds and buds. Seeds from a tulip will form a flowering bulb after 7-12 years. When a bulb grows into the flower, the original bulb will disappear, but a clone bulb forms in its place, as do several buds. Properly cultivated, these buds will become bulbs of their own. The mosaic virus spreads only through buds, not seeds, and so cultivating the most appealing varieties takes years. Propagation is greatly slowed down by the virus. Tulips bloom in April and May for only about a week and the secondary buds appear shortly thereafter. Bulbs can be uprooted and moved about from June to September and thus actual purchases (in the spot market) occurred during these months.

During the rest of the year, traders signed contracts before a notary to purchase tulips at the end of the season (effectively futures contracts).  Thus the Dutch, who developed many of the techniques of modern finance, created a market for durable tulip bulbs. As the flowers grew in popularity, professional growers paid higher and higher prices for bulbs with the virus.

By 1634, in part as a result of demand from the French, speculators began to enter the market. In 1636, the Dutch created a type of formal futures markets where contracts to buy bulbs at the end of the season were bought and sold. Traders met in "colleges" at taverns and buyers were required to pay a 2.5% "wine money" fee, up to a maximum of three florins, per trade.

This trade was centered in Haarlem during the height of a bubonic plague epidemic, which may have contributed to a culture of fatalistic risk taking. The contract price of rare bulbs continued to rise throughout 1636. That November, the contract price of common bulbs without the valuable mosaic virus also began to rise in value. The Dutch derogatorily described tulip contract trading as windhandel (literally, wind trade) because no bulbs were actually changing hands.

In the book Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds, published in 1841, the Scottish journalist Charles Mackay proposed that crowds of people often behave irrationally and tulipmania was one of his primary examples. His account was largely sourced to a 1797 work by Johann Beckmann titled A History of Inventions, Discoveries, and Origins. In fact, Beckmann's account, and thus Mackay's by association, was primarily sourced to three anonymous pamphlets published in 1637.  Recent studies of the book have led to its being discounted by many modern economists.

The lack of consistently recorded price data from the 1630s makes the extent of the tulipmania difficult to estimate. The bulk of available data came from anti-speculative pamphlets by "Gaergoedt and Warmondt" (GW) written just after the bubble. Economist Peter Garber collected data on the sales of 161 bulbs of 39 varieties between 1633 and 1637, with 53 being recorded by GW. Ninety-eight sales were recorded for the last date of the bubble, 5 Feb. 1637, at wildly varying prices.

According to Mackay, the growing popularity of tulips in the early 1600s caught the attention of the entire nation; "the population, even to its lowest dregs, embarked in the tulip trade." By 1635, a sale of 40 bulbs for 100,000 florins (also known as Dutch guilders) was recorded. By way of comparison, a ton of butter cost around 100 florins, a skilled laborer might earn 150 florins a year and "eight fat swine" cost 240 florins.

These Dutch florins were minted between 1601-1603.
By 1636, tulips were traded on the exchanges of numerous Dutch towns and cities. This encouraged trading in tulips by all members of society; Mackay recounted people selling or trading their other possessions in order to speculate in the tulip market, such as an offer of an acre of land for one of two existing Semper Augustus bulbs, or a single bulb of the Viceroy which was purchased for a basket of goods (shown below) worth 2,500 florins. A single Viceroy tulip bulb would sell for 2500 florins, a value roughly equivalent to $1,250 in current American dollars, while a rarer Semper Augustus bulb could easily go for twice that.

Goods allegedly exchanged for a single bulb of the Viceroy
Two lasts of wheat            448Æ’
Four lasts of rye              558Æ
Four fat oxen                  480Æ’
Eight fat swine                240Æ’
Twelve fat sheep             120Æ’
Two hogsheads of wine    70Æ’
Four tuns of beer              32Æ’
Two tons of butter            192Æ’
1,000 lb. of cheese            120Æ’
A complete bed                 100Æ’
A suit of clothes                 80Æ’
A silver drinking cup           60Æ’
   Total                           2500Æ’
"Many individuals grew suddenly rich. A golden bait hung temptingly out before the people, and, one after the other, they rushed to the tulip marts, like flies around a honey-pot. Every one imagined that the passion for tulips would last for ever, and that the wealthy from every part of the world would send to Holland, and pay whatever prices were asked for them. The riches of Europe would be concentrated on the shores of the Zuyder Zee, and poverty banished from the favoured clime of Holland. Nobles, citizens, farmers, mechanics, seamen, footmen, maidservants, even chimney-sweeps and old clotheswomen, dabbled in tulips." [Mackay]

The increasing mania contributed several amusing, but unlikely, anecdotes that Mackay recounted, such as a sailor who mistook the valuable tulip bulb of a merchant for an onion and grabbed it to eat. The merchant and his family chased the sailor to find him "eating a breakfast whose cost might have regaled a whole ship's crew for a twelvemonth." The sailor was jailed for eating the bulb.

People were purchasing bulbs at higher and higher prices, intending to re-sell them for a profit. However, such a scheme could not last unless someone was ultimately willing to pay such high prices and take possession of the bulbs. In February 1637, tulip traders could no longer find new buyers willing to pay increasingly inflated prices for their bulbs. As this realization set in, the demand for tulips collapsed and prices plummeted--the speculative bubble had burst. Some were left holding contracts to purchase tulips at prices now ten times greater than those on the open market, while others found themselves in possession of bulbs now worth a fraction of the price they had paid. Mackay claims the Dutch devolved into distressed accusations and recriminations against others in the trade.

The panicked tulip speculators sought help from the government of the Netherlands, which responded by declaring that anyone who had bought contracts to purchase bulbs in the future could void their contract by payment of a 10-percent fee. Attempts were made to resolve the situation to the satisfaction of all parties, but these were unsuccessful. The mania finally ended, Mackay says, with individuals stuck with the bulbs they held at the end of the crash.  No court would enforce payment of a contract, since judges regarded the debts as contracted through gambling, and thus not enforceable by law. Before this parliamentary decree, the purchaser of a tulip contract--known in modern finance as a futures contract--was legally obliged to buy the bulbs.

In her 2007 scholarly analysis Tulipmania, Anne Goldgar argues that the phenomenon was limited to "a fairly small group" and that most accounts from the period "are based on one or two contemporary pieces of propaganda and a prodigious amount of plagiarism." Peter Garber states that the bubble "was no more than a meaningless winter drinking game, played by a plague-ridden population that made use of the vibrant tulip market."

Stilleven met bloemen (Still Life with Blooms) by Hans Bollongier
Other economists believe that these elements cannot completely explain the dramatic rise and fall in prices.  Garber's theory has also been challenged for failing to explain a similar dramatic rise and fall in prices for regular tulip bulb contracts. Some economists also point to other factors associated with speculative bubbles, such as a loosening of monetary policy (an increase in the supply of money), as demonstrated by factors such as a surge in deposits at the Bank of Amsterdam during the tulipmania period.

Goldgar argues that although tulipmania may not have constituted an economic or speculative bubble, it was nonetheless traumatic to the Dutch for other reasons. "Even though the financial crisis affected very few, the shock of tulipmania was considerable. A whole network of values was thrown into doubt." In the 17th century, it was unimaginable to most people that something as common as a flower could be worth so much more money than most people earned in a year. The idea that the prices of flowers that grow only in the summer could fluctuate so wildly in the winter threw into chaos the very understanding of "value."

The volatility of the tulip market is also a major plot event in Gregory Maguire's novel, Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister.  But more recently, tulipmania could be applied to the phenomena of the Cabbage Patch dolls, Beanie Babies frenzy, the Tickle Me Elmo panic or even the X-Box 360 craze.

Tulipmania once again became a popular reference as journalists have compared it to the sub-prime mortgage crisis. It was even used in a recent movie, "Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps", where a once-disgraced financier uses the illustration of tulipmania in a presentation, and there is even an Internet game called "Tulipmania 1637."


Dash, Mike, Tulipomania: The Story of the World's Most Coveted Flower and the Extraordinary Passions It Aroused (London: Gollancz) 1999.

Garber, Peter M., "Tulipmania", Journal of Political Economy 97 (3): 59-60. (1989).

Goldgar, Anne, Tulipmania: Money, Honor, and Knowledge in the Dutch Golden Age (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) 2007.

Phillips, S., "Tulip breaking potyvirus", in Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20 Aug. 1996. Retrieved on 15 Aug. 2008.

Thompson, Earl, "The tulipmania: Fact or artifact?" pdf. (Public Choice 130 (1-2): 2007) 99-114. Retrieved on 15 Aug. 2008.

Monday, September 12, 2011

Ten Eyck Family Bible Records, Part 1

From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 4, p. 31.

Ten Eyck Family Bible Records, Part 2

From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 4, p. 31.

Ten Eyck Family Bible Records, Part 3

From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 4, p. 32. 

Phillip Pieterson Schuyler Genealogy

From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 1, p. 3.

David Pieterse Schuyler Biography, Part 3

From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 4, p. 29.

David Pieterse Schuyler Biography, Part 2

From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 4, p. 29.

David Pieterse Schuyler Biography, Part 1

From: From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 4, p. 28.

New York City Marriage Licenses, 1702-1703: Part 2

From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 2, p. 13. 

New York City Marriage Licenses, 1702-1703: Part 1


From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 1, p. 3. 

Asa Howland Obituary

From: New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, (New York: New York Genealogical and Biographical Society) 1870; Vol. 1, Bk. 4, p. 34.

Friday, September 9, 2011

"New" Inhabitants of Barnstable, MA 1662 and 1666

At a town meeting the 3d of October 1662

ordered & agreed that the sones of all ye present inhabitants shall successively be received as Inhabitants and Allowed equal Town Privileges In the Commons and such other Privileges as belong to the present Inhabitants as a Township at ye day of their marriage or the age of Twenty four years which shall happen first and it is further agreed that these following be admitted Inhabitants:

John Howland                                      Caleb Lumbard {Lomard}
James Cob                                           Samll Bacon
Samll Fuller, son of Samll Fuller Senr.    James Hamblin
Daniel Stueart                                       Samll Hicks                                      
Jabez Lumbard {Lombard}                    Edward Coleman
Edward Lewes                                      Samll Norman
Thomas Lumbard {Lombard}                 Nicholas Bourn {Bourne}
Thomas Ewer
John Sergeant
Samll Fuller, son of Lefft. Fuller {Lieutenant?}
Joseph Benjamin
John Lewes
John Crocker

1666 {no day or month given}

Dolar Davis
Jedidiah Lumbart {Lombard}
Samll Annable
Nathaniel Goodspeed
Samll Hinckley
Joseph Hallet
Meletiah Lothrop
John Phinney
----- Otis {no name given in original}
John Fuller

From: Barnstable Town Records, Charles Warner Swift and John Bear Doane Cogswell (Yarmouth, MA: C. W. Swift, 1912)

Inhabitants of Barnstable, MA 1662

23rd February 1662

The names of ye Inhabitants of Barnstable:

 Abraham Blish                      Thomas Lothrop
Thomas Shane                      Thomas Lumbard {Lombard}
John Crocker                        John Hall (or Hull)
Doller Davis                          Henry Rowley
William Betts                          Isaac Nells
Robert Sherley                       John Smith
Thomas Hatch                       George Lewes
John Cooper                          Edward FittsRandle
Austin Bearse                         Bernard Lumbarde {Lombard}
William Crocker                      Roger Goodspeed
Henry Brown                          Henry Cob
Henry Coggin                         Thomas Huckey
Laurence Litchfield                 John Scudder
James Hamblin                       Samuel Mayo
James Cudworth                    Nathaniel Bacon
Thomas Hinkley {Hinckley}    Richard Foxwell
Isaac Robinson                      Thomas Dimock {Dimmock}
Samll Jackson                        Samll Hinkley {Hinckley}
Thomas Allin {Allen}  
Mr. John Mayo  
Mr. John Bursley  
John Casley  
William Casley  
Robert Lynnel

From: Barnstable Town Records, Charles Warner Swift and John Bear Doane Cogswell (Yarmouth, MA: C. W. Swift, 1912)

Deed to Town of Barnstable, MA

August 26, 1644

Witness these presents that I, Surunk, an Indian, now dwelling at South Sea, do sell and make over unto ye Town of Barnstable all ye sd lands an meddow {meadow}. Lying betwixt ye bounds (of Sandwich?) and ye bounds of Plexit, another Indian, in consideration of four coats & three axes. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand ye day and year above written.

The mark of Serunk
Thomas Dimmock
The mark of (A) Anthony Annable
Henry Cob
John Smith
Thomas Allen
Lawrence Willis

This is a true coppy taken out ye original deed. Compared and entered, Ita: Attest Thomas Hinkley {Hinckley}, Scriba & Assistt____

From: Barnstable Town Records, Charles Warner Swift and John Bear Doane Cogswell (Yarmouth, MA: C. W. Swift, 1912)

Thursday, September 8, 2011

Conewago, Adams-York Co., PA, Reformed Dutch Church: Part 3

Conewago Burial Ground

From: PA Archives, Vol. III; copied and contributed by Alfred R. Justice (no date given)
{transcribed by Carolyn Leonard 2008}

Some of these stones are no longer in place.

    1.  Eleanor Bercaw (Brokaw) died 9 August 1833 aged 17 years, 23 days.

    2.  Jane, wife of Garrett Demaree, died 13 February 1825

    3.  (initials only) S. H. 1777 (very old rough stone)

    4.  Margaret Lash (2nd line) Ells ...(broken) died 25 August 1803 age 40 years, 2 mos.

    5.  (initials only) M. S. 1777 (rough stone)

    6.  (initials only) M. L. (no date)

    7.  George William Lashells, son of Ralph and Mary Lashells, died 12 April 1812, aged 12 months, 20 days.

    8.  Sophia Lashells, dau of Ralph and Mary Lashells, died 28 Dec. 1813, aged 4 yrs, 8 mos.

    9.  Eliza Monfort, consort of Francis Monfort, died 29 Oct. 1828, aged 27 years, 4 mos, 19 days.

    10.  Elizabeth, wife of Peter Monfort, died 7 Oct. 1830, aged 35 years, 11 months.

    11.  Margaret, wife of David Monfort, died 2 Feb. 1858, aged 40 years, 3 months.

    12.  Sarah Monfort, died 14 Oct. 1831 aged 63 years, 5 months, 1 day

    13.  John Monfort, died 9 March 1838, aged 87 years.

    14.  G. B. Brinkerhoff, born 9 Oct. 1719, died 3 Jan 1810, aged 90 years 2 mos, 24 days. (one stone: George Brinkerhoff and wife; the first family who settled in PA in 1770)

    15.  (initials only) A. P. (old stone, no other inscription)

    16.  (initials only) B. P. (old stone, no other inscription)

    17.  Mary Van Duyn, consort of Dennis, aged 49 years; died 19 Feb. 1810

    18.  Susan Van Duyn, consort of Ralph, aged 77 years; died 14 Dec. 1805

    19.  Margaret Brinkerhoff, relict of Garret, died 25 March 1867, aged 82 years, 7 mos, 29 da.

    20.  Garret Brinkerhoff, died 19 Sept. 1862, aged 75 years, 4 months, 8 days.

    21.  Sarah Brinkerhoff, died June 1852, aged 35 years, 9 months, 6 days

    22.  Martha C. Brinkerhoff, died 6 April 1852, aged 32 years, 2 months, 23 days.

    23.  Eliza Brinkerhoff, died 8 March 1888, aged 69 years, 8 mo, 9 days

    24.  Lydia Jane Baldwin, daughter of J. J. & S. Baldwin, died 3 May 1855, aged 4 mos., 23 days.

    25.  Jacob Baldwin, son of J. J. & S. Baldwin died 9 July 1856, aged 3 years, 5 days.

    26.  Joseph Kitcheon, died 25 Oct. 1854, aged 66 years, 9 mos, 21 days.

    27.  Sarah McCreary, born 28 Jan. 1786; died 24 Dec 1858.

    28.  David McCreary, born 18 Dec. 1793; died 17 Aug 1858.

Gate to the Low Dutch Cemetery

The Low Dutch Cemetery in Straban Twp. is also called Osborn’s Cemetery and the Northern Low Dutch cemetery. (Driving Directions: About 7 miles east of Gettysburg (from Route 30), turn north onto Swift Run Road and go .7 mile just past the New Chester Road. The cemetery is about 100 feet back from the right side of Swift Run Road.)

Photos of the tombstones that remained {as of 2007} can be found here:

Many thanks and as tip o' the hat to Carolyn B. Leonard for all her hard work on her Low Dutch pages.  Carolyn has more information Low Dutch heritage at her website:

Wednesday, September 7, 2011

The Holland Land Company Purchase

The Holland Land Company was a group of thirteen Dutch investors in Amsterdam, who placed funds in the hands of certain trustees in America, for the purpose of investing in land in central and western New York State and western Pennsylvania. The Holland Land Company was a purchaser of the western two-thirds of the western New York land tract known as the Phelps and Gorham Purchase. This tract was known thereafter as The Holland Purchase. These investors hoped to sell the land rapidly at a great profit. Instead, for many years they were forced to make further investments in their purchase; surveying it, building roads, digging canals, to make it more attractive to settlers.

In 1789 the Holland Land Company sent a general agent, Theophile Cazenove, to keep them informed. He was located in Philadelphia, to oversee land sales. This became the basis of what would later grow into the Holland Land Company.

The tract purchased in western New York was a 3,250,000 acre portion of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase that lay west of the Gennessee River. It was purchased in December 1792 and February and July 1793 from Robert Morris who had purchased it from Massachusetts in May 1791. Morris' purchase from Massachusetts was for some 3,750,000 acres, but Morris kept back some 500,000 acres for himself in a tract 12 miles wide and running the breadth of western New York from Lake Ontario to Pennsylvania. This 500,000 acre tract was known as the Morris Reserve. The town of Mount Morris just northeast of Letchworth State Park is named after him.

Map of the Holland Land Company Purchase

Before Morris could give the Holland Land Company title to this land, however, it was necessary to extinguish the Indian title. This was achieved at the 1797 Treaty of Big Tree. Big Tree was a place on the Gennessee River near modern-day Geneseo, south of Rochester, NY. Representatives of the Holland Land Company, of Robert Morris, of the Indians, and a commissioner for the United States, gathered at Big Tree in August, 1797 and negotiations began.

Chiefs and Sachems present included Red Jacket, Cornplanter, Governor Blacksnake, Farmer's Brother and about 50 others. Red Jacket and Cornplanter spoke strongly against selling the land. They held out for "reservations," that is, land which the Indians would keep for their own use. After much discussion, the treaty was signed 15 Sept. 1797. The Native Indians were to receive $100,000 for their rights to about 3.75 million acres and they reserved about 200,000 acres for themselves.

In 1798, Joseph Ellicott was hired and he, along with his brother Benjamin and 130 men, surveyed the purchase for the next three years. In November 1800, Paolo Busti (Paul Busti) succeeded Cazenove as General Agent. Busti was an Italian from Milan, Italy, who had married one of the syndicate member's sister. He would serve until his death in 1824.
Holland Land Company stone marker

The Holland Land Company's main land office was opened (1801) in Batavia, NY. Batavia was selected because the Holland Lands were all located in Gennessee County and Batavia was the county seat. Busti also appointed local agents at other offices in different parts of the Purchase. Subagents were located in Mayville, Ellicottville, Buffalo, Meadville, Instanter, two districts in Eastern Alleghany, Lancaster, Cazenovia, and Barneveld.

Holland Land Company Vault at Mayville, NY

From the very beginning, the agents were urged to keep the records in stone fireproof safes or else deposit them with banks. By 1840, all the land in Western New York was sold off to local investors and settlers. In about 1846, all the affairs of the company in the United States were liquidated and the company dissolved.  The town of Holland, NY, bears its namesake.

Holland Land Company Vault Inscription

The village of Mayville is in the town of Chautauqua and is the county seat of Chautauqua County. The first settlement in the county was at this location in 1804 and the village of Mayville was incorporated in 1830. A noted incident in the community's early history came on 6 Feb. 1836 when local residents rioted against the Holland Land Company and broke into its office, destroying furniture and papers. After the land office was destroyed, it was thereafter re-opened and kept at Westfield.

Conewago, Adams-York Co., PA, Reformed Dutch Church: Part 2

"Large numbers of families from Somerset County, NJ, towns of Millstone and Neshanic localities and from Bergen County, NJ, went to the vicinity of Gettysburg, Pa., prior to the Revolutionary War. Some of them later went to Plwasureville {sic}, Kentucky and then on westward. Some of the settlers traced back to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, in France, and these people were Huguenots, who being persecuted, refugeed to Holland. These founded the Dutch Reformed Church in America. Later some of these people from New Jersey went to Pennsylvania and later some to Kentucky, after the Indians broke up the Conewago Colony, burned houses and murdered numbers of people. Some went to Mercer County, Kentucky, and others elsewhere." [Migration from New Jersey to the Conowago Colony, Pa., 1675-1771, by A. Van Doren Honeyman of Plainfield, NJ]

Route of the New Jersey Dutch to Pennsylvania
The following excerpts about the history of the Conewago Colony have been taken from a 30-page manuscript in the Ponna Archives {with which I am unfamiliar} and the manuscript, or parts of it, were published in The Star and Sentinel, Gettysburg, PA., 8 Jan. 1884.  The writer is unidentified but may have been J. K. Demaree, a descendant of one of the original colony settlers.

"The Church was called the "Reformed Dutch Church of Conewago." By that name it appears on the roll of the Classis of New Brunswick, NY....

"The Conewago Settlement...extended from a point two miles east of what is now Hunterstown...along a road running in a south-westerly direction to a point a mile or less across what is now the Baltimore Pike and down the pike to the Two Taverns. This road is still known as the Low Dutch Road, and is so called on the maps and in the text of the third volume of the Count de Paris’ History of the Civil War.

"The Dutchmen, and they who accompanied them, were farmers. Even the mechanics of their number--the Demarees were carpenters and painters, the Van Ardsdales blacksmiths--expected to obtain the most and best of their living from the soil. They did not found a town, therefore, nor were they ambitious in that direction, but the densest parts of the settlement were those nearest the two extremities.

Conewago Creek, Adams Co., PA

"The boundaries of the population...were marked by cemeteries...and one of them, the more northern, was in the near vicinity of the church....It was on a piece of land which had been patented, had a stone foundation, which some still living had seen, and had a spacious perhaps rather than airy spiritual superstructure of pine board, barn-like in style of architecture,...though its form had been much changed....The site of the church first was on what is now the York Pike, near the Duttera railway station, about a half mile from the cemetery.

The Conewago Church as it appears today
"A moss grown tablet in the Conewago Burial Ground bears this inscription:

In memory of David Demaree
Born in the East of New Jersey
In Bergen County, November 1731
and departed this life November 1808
aged 77

"The Demarees, Ackermans, Brinkerhoffs, Bogarts, Terhunes, Bantas, De Daum, De Motts, Voorhees, Brewers, Slegels and many others no doubt came from Bergen County, NJ. These names are still heard there with sufficient frequency. The Houghtalins and Cosines came from the West bank of the Hudson near Haverstraw. An Abraham Lott, perhaps a connection of the Lotts, was prominent in New York City about the time of the Revolution, holding office in both church and state. The Brokaws can be traced to New York. The Cassats and Montforts, two of the first comers, whose influence never became second to any of the later comers, had an earlier home in Somerset County, NJ, near Millstone, and an earlier still in New York, the latter family having settled there before 1640. The Van Dykes and Van Arsdales came from Essex County, NJ, near Patterson. The Benners, among the latest to arrive, came to this county from Berks {Co., PA}, having tarried on the way.
Cabin of Henry Banta Family at Conewago {Photo courtesy of Paul Briggs}
"It is certain that all the colonists did not arrive simultaneously. Some were on the ground as early as 1765. But there is no evidence that any were here earlier. At York, a deed of which a member of the Van Arsdale family was the granter, conveyed property in Straben Township, "adjoining lands of Henry Banta, George Sebring, William Love, David Hunter, and Francis Coserto." This is the oldest document preserved..., throwing light on the history of this colony. It was to cover debts contracted in 1765. The deed was given in 1768. On the other hand, it can be shown that the Demarees and Brinkerhoffs did not leave Bergen County before 1771, for the marriages and baptisms of some who subsequently appear at Conewago are recorded in the books of the Reformed Dutch Church of Schraalenburgh, NJ, up to that year.
"Chief among these is a bundle of tattered and age-stained leaves from the Baptismal Record of the Reformed Dutch Church of Conewago, beginning, it appears, with its organization and covering the best period of the continuance of the colony in Pennsylvania...The record had been handed down from Peter Montfort, one of the colonists, to his great-grandson, Francis. Francis had given it to his grand-nephew, Dr. J. G. Montfort,...of whom I shall now say that he has had the kindness to make a present of it to me. I hope to have the honor of securing, in due time, a final resting place for it in the archives of the Historical Society at Harrisburg.

"In addition to the Baptismal Record...several other papers {are found}, among the most interesting of which are a draft of the church, showing the location of the seats, the pulpit, and some of the church furniture and also a handful of fringed and yellow leaves from the Deacon’s book, showing collections and expenditures.

"The Baptismal Record of the church begins its entries with October 23, 1769. There is nothing to show or even make it probable that the church had an existence before that date.  The first baptism recorded is that of Antje, a daughter of _____ Ammerman and _____ Van Arsdalen (from this entry, unfortunately the Christian names are torn away). The Dutch were commendably methodical and careful with their records--a habit which is still a characteristic of the denomination. One of their churches in Bergen County, a church with which the Conewago Colony stands in some relation, has been to publish its list of communicants, with scarcely a break from the year of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes to the present. Probably the fact that on the continent of Europe down to the close of the eighteenth century, vital statistics--even for the use of the state--were generally obtained from the church, so that the church was depended on for them, impressed this valuable habit on the French and Dutch. 
"In the Fall of 1772, the Conewago congregation secured a pastor of their own, Rev. Cornelius Cosine. Dr. E. T. Corwin, in his Manual of the Reformed Church in America, says of him only that he was a pastor of the Conewago Church from 1784 to 1788. But, in the baptismal record, I find the sacrament was administered by him at stated times beginning October 11, 1772 and continuing until 1788. The fact of his death in that year or in the next I discovered from an examination of some papers at York. Nothing can be said as to where he obtained his education or by whom he was ordained. His wife, Maria Brewer, was the daughter of one of the colonists. She, upon his death went to Haverstraw, NY, where she married David S. Demarest, of Hackensack, NJ.

"Rev. Cosine was succeeded by Rev. George G. Brinkerhoff, who entered on his work in November 1789. So it appears in the Minutes of the General Synod: "The Licentiate Georgius G. Brinkerhoff presented a call made upon him by the congregation of Conewago, and at the request of that congregation and on account of the distance, this Reverand Body solemnly ordained Mr. Brinkerhoff to his office here in the Reformed Dutch Church." That session of the General Synod was held in New York, October 1789. And with this, minutes of the Baptismal Record correspond. No child was baptized from October 1787 to November 1789, at which time we find the first mention of Rev. George G. Brinkerhoff: "Volent Dee Minister of Conewago."
Rev. George G. Brinkerhoff was born in Closter, Bergen Co., NJ, in 1751. He must have been one of the first admitted to the ministry of the Reformed Dutch Church without credentials from beyond the sea. He was prepared for his calling in part at Pompton Plains, NJ, by Rev. Hermanus Meyer, a German, a graduate of Greeningen University, and in part at Hackensack, NJ, by Rev. Solomon Froelich and Rev. Theodore Romeyn.
"Before coming to Conewago, Mr. Brinkerhoff was what we should now call a "Home Missionary," having been sent by the General Synod "to the North"...to the early settlers in the northern counties of New York State. On leaving Conewago, he returned to Bergen County, NJ, and accepted a call to two churches, Kakiat (now New Hempstead) and Ramapo. To these, he ministered from 1793 to 1806. In 1796 he was borrowed, so to speak, from his churches for a year and sent as a missionary to Gennessee County, NY. In 1798, he came once more to Conewago to visit the congregation with which he had formerly so close a relation. In 1808, he became the pastor of a church at Sempronius, near Owasco Lake, NY. During this, his last pastorate, his health failed and, in 1813, he died at Sempronius.

"In Corwin's Manual, I find it said of Mr. Brinkerhoff that he was "mild and gentle in his temper, firm and resolute in his opinions and purposes." He was converted early in life, and his "spiritual exercises were deep and earnest." His last words were: "Why tarry the charriot wheels so long, oh, Lord?"

"These two pastors, Cornelius Cosine and George G. Brinkerhoff, were all the Conewago Church ever had. Mr. Brinkerhoff resigned in November 1793, on account of the breaking up of his congregation."
A long section of this manuscript gives a vivid description of the Conewago Colony and what the daily life of those early Dutch settlers must have been like. 
Dutch family at home
"Having at my hand the plan of the Conewago Church, with the seats all marked, each with the name of its occupant--I am sorry the paper is not dated, but judging from the names it bears, I shall not be far wrong if I assign it to 1780--I am able to form some definite idea of the community as it appeared on a Sabbath morning, that is to say, of the community as a whole. No better time could be chosen to take a view of this group, for nothing so certainly as a church service would bring them all together.

"Through the six secular days of the week, the good Dutch wives must milk the cows, bake bread, pies and cakes - savory pies I warrant, happily they were not much addicted to cakes, except to a certain form of doughnut, which, however, might well suffice - mind the children and sweep the house, only relieving their monotonous existence by occasionally going to a neighbors to "spend the day." 

"The men, it is likely, gathered in small groups on wet days around Van Arsdale’s charcoal fire, or at the carpenter’s shop, where Demaree and his boys were usually working, and most frequently at "the store"...where absolutely everything was exposed for sale, notwithstanding the stock was small, from books, for which, except prophetic almanacs, there was little or no demand, down through dry goods, boots and shoes, hardware, groceries, all the way to patent medicines--the horse powders and pain killers of the last century....

"The Dutch boys and girls were notoriously good. The young women behaved with a propriety which added a charm to the freshness and rosiness of their cheeks. And the elderly people in a Dutch community are always, as the world knows, very patterns of Sobriety and dignity. So, with occasional frolic and with much discussion of political and not infrequently religious subjects, fore-ordination and other strong meat of Calvinism being the most acceptable--discussions never resulting in a conversion, for generally all were agreed at the start, and happily the majority of the Dutch are born into the world with the right views, also there would be little hope for them--their hours of idleness and weekly congregation passed away.

"But only at the church...could you see the whole community. There they are, male and female, old and young, rich and poor, all who are not actually disabled, dressed in their best, and with that guarded and reverential demeanor, which is a true mark of refinement and nobility of spirit.

"Let us glance at the church. Unlike the Scotch-Irish, the Dutch had too much consideration for their personal comfort to dispense with stoves: a stove therefore is to be found on either side of the main entrance. The pulpit, very high, a wine glass in shape is opposite the door. There is a broad middle aisle, and there are two narrow ones at the side walls. Extending completely around the church is a continuous bench. The space before the pulpit is ample for the communion service, held once in three months, for the performance of the marriage ceremony, which, however, rarely took place at the church, and for baptismal administration, which were required with a frequency which now in Adams County we should consider extraordinary.

Dutch Church Interior
"As I look in the door, careful that there shall not be even the sound of a footfall--for the silence is absolute, most impressive, the ministers subdued solemn tone, unaccompanied with any demonstrativeness of manner, alone breaking it--I see the backs of a goodly number of thoughtful, earnest and saintly people...as worthy as any who have ever walked in this world.

"To my right, and nearest me--that ancient paper points out--sit the Brinkerhoffs; in front of them are the Demarees; and still beyond are the Van Arsdales and Conovers. On my left, I see the Cassats sitting about opposite the Montforts. The Van Dykes are far forewardon the same side, near the pulpit. The Bantas are, the most of them, in the corner of the church at the minister’s right--a quarter avoided now, but then, considered a 'high seat in the synagogue.'

"So, there they sit, these Elders. I believe I can portray them, though I have never seen them, you may be sure, nor ever heard them described. But they are the marked men in the community to which they belong, and the typical marked man in a Dutch community, a hundred years ago, was tall and spare. He had a face long from the hairline to the chin, clean shaven with strong, rather severe features, thin tight lips, blue eyes, and complexion inclined to sallow. His appearance was such, as you see him sitting in the Elders or the Deacons seat, you could not but think, if at any time you had business with him, he might have to be addressed twice before he would attend, you should probably find him absent-minded, but always a man of thought, a man of principle, a man of God.

"I am sorry I have not been able, at least as yet, to recover the names of any of the Elders of the Conewago Church. I am confident, however, but let the reader bear in mind that in this I speak without documentary evidence that Francis Cassatt, Peter Montfort, Jacob Brinkerhoff and David Demaree must have been among them.

"The names of some of the Deacons I can give from the still extant pages of their book. I should have said, there is rotation in the office of both Elder and Deacon in the Reformed Dutch Church. The following names I find: David Cossart, Garret Van Arsdalen, John Van Dyck, Henry Commingore, Isaac Van Arsdalen, Luke Brinkerhoff, John Cownover, Thomas Johnson and Ralph Brinkerhoff.

"The Dutch families emigrated from Adams County--or York County, as it was called until 1800--in two directions, westward and northward. The earliest removals were to Kentucky in 1781, to White Oak Spring Station on the Kentucky River, one mile above Boonesborough. Among the emigrants were Henry Banta, Sr.; Henry Banta Jr.; Abraham and John Banta; Samuel, Peter, Daniel, Henry, and Albert Duryee; Peter Cosart or Cozad, (Cassat); Frederick Ripperdam; and John Fleuty, (Yeury).

"The second, that to New York and the North in 1793, had a more immediate effect on those that remained behind. The departure in a body of the north-bound emigrants, all men of character--and at a time when the colony had already been so much weakened by removals--was a complete discouragement.
"The traditions of the emigration northward are...more numerous and better preserved, than those of the earlier...and more distant removal. On the records of the South (Dutch) Reformed Church of Schraalenberg,  H.J.ff (sic) is the marriage of "Lucas Demaree, of Conowago" dated August 26, 1789, and "Polly Demaree of Schraalenburg." Their names occur on the records of the Conewago Church, where they had a child baptized January 20, 1793.

"The circumstances under which the journey to the lakes was made are worthy of notice. The Aborigines of the North..possessed more vigor than those of the South. From 1755 to 1794, the most powerful confederacy of Indians in America was that of the Six Nations, who occupied what is now Ohio, together with large portions of northern Pennsylvania and western New York.

"The Massacre of Wyoming--of bitter memory--was by the Six Nations at the instigation of the Tories in 1778. Successes against this confederacy were few and of small consequence until after the massacre just named. That awakened a wide spread and fierce indignation, which could be satisfied only with such a penalty as was inflicted on the Indians by General Sullivan. He fought the bloody battle of Chemung about where the city of Elmira now stands in 1779 and, at the time, burned nearly 50 of their villages in the Genessee Valley. But not until the famous, crushing victory of General Wayne, Mad Anthony as the people called him, at the Maumee in 1794 was the Red Man’s power even so far east as the Susquehanna finally and forever destroyed.

"These two victories made the country about the lakes of New York safe and hardly was the way to it opened before some adventurous spirits of the Conewago Colony hastened to make use of it. They were among the very first to seek homes in that direction and the eventful century which has now almost intervened between us and them....

"The story of the emigration northward, along rivers and through forests to the lakes {was} told in a letter written by Mr. John Brinkerhoff, of Auburn, Cayuga County, NY...to his cousin Mr. J.G. Brinkerhoff of Hunterstown, PA:

Auburn, Cayuga Co., N.Y., Jan. 7, 1883

My dear Cousin:

I have always understood that we are descended from the family at Hackensack, N.J. I visited there in the summer of 1844, on the same farm which our ancestor Hendrick settled in 1660. It has been owned and occupied by his descendants ever since. 

You ask, can I give you the time when my father, with others, moved from your county to New York State. My father and mother, with seven children, my uncle Roeleff and my aunt Isabel with eight children and eight families besides which I do not know how many children, left Gettysburg April 30, 1793 and reached this county (Cayuga, N.Y.) July 4th of the same year, having been two months and four days on the way. 
I have often heard my parents and others tell the story of their long journey. The State of Pennsylvania had been engaged for some time opening a road through the wilderness to what is called the Gennessee Country, N.Y., and gangs of men were still working on different sections of it. Of course the road was rough, stumps of trees were still standing, and now and then a corduroy bridge over a swampy place. They came with tented wagons. Their progress was necessarily very slow. Sometimes they would reach the end of the road, that is they would come up with a company of men who had not finished their section, and they would send a few of their own men forward with axes to help through to the nest section. 
I assure you, they found no commodious hotels; but every settler who had so much as a log house would take in as many as his house would hold, the women and children sleeping on beds that would cover the floor, the men remaining in their tents. When night overtook them and no house was in sight, as often happened, the women would sleep in the wagons, and the men on the ground under the wagons. 
When they reached the place where the Chemung joins the Susquahanna, they were detained about two weeks on account of high water. From there they came to the Cayuga flats, where the village of Ithaca now stands, and afterwards still futher (sic) northward to this country. I do not remember having mention of a single case of sickness during all their journey.

Your affectionate cousin

John I. Brinkerhoff 

A second letter is as follows:

Auburn, N.Y., Sept. 28, 1885

Re. J.K. Demarest

Dear Sir:

You ask for further information in regard to the ten families who left Gettysburg April 30, 1793. They reached this country ten years before I was born. I have no written record of their names, but have often heard them mentioned. The male heads of the families were; my father Jacob Brinkerhoff, his brother Roeleff (Ralph) Brinkerhoff, Thomas Johnson, Abraham Bodine, Charles VanDine, Luke Brinkerhoff, James Dates, Isaac Parsell, Jacob Loyster, and Andrew Johnson. These ten families came in company. 

On reaching the south end of our country they found some cleared land or Indian fields. Here they concluded to stop and put some cabins for shelter. Having sowed some seed they took time to explore the country and decide where to make a permanent settlement. After two years, they purchased lands near the foot of Owasco Lake and got possession in the Spring of 1795. 
They organized a religious society in the same year in connection with the Reformed Dutch Church, and met for worship in their log cabins. But soon new settlers came in rapidly, and the summer of 1797 they built the first church edifice in the county. It was of logs 30’x 25’ with gallery on three sides. It continued in use until 1815, when it gave place to a larger and better. 
I should have said my uncle James Brinkerhoff, with his family came here from Adams County after the rest. I think in 1796, you ask if I can tell you anything of an emigration from Adams County to Kentucky. I can only say that I have often heard from my parents that several of their neighbors went to Kentucky about the same time they came here---I can only add that I am in my 81st year. I have reason to be thankful; my health is still good. Of course I cannot expect to remain long but I trust through Divine Grace to be prepared when I shall be called away.

Respectfully yours 

(signed) John Brinkerhoff

"As we have seen, it was to their church which had hardly more than entered on its existence the beginning of the end: the last pastor, Rev. George G. Brinkerhoff, resigning. From that time forth, the few Dutch families still on this ground ceased to keep themselves separate, and through intermarriage and various changes, became at last absorbed in the general population of the country."

Wednesday, August 24, 2011

The Sack of Baltimore [Ireland]

THE SUMMER sun is falling soft on Carbery’s hundred isles,
The summer sun is gleaming still through Gabriel’s rough defiles;
Old Innisherkin’s crumbled fane looks like a moulting bird,
And in a calm and sleepy swell the ocean tide is heard:
The hookers lie upon the beach; the children cease their play;        5
The gossips leave the little inn; the households kneel to pray;
And full of love, and peace, and rest, its daily labor o’er,
Upon that cosy creek there lay the town of Baltimore.  

A deeper rest, a starry trance, has come with midnight there;
No sound, except that throbbing wave, in earth, or sea, or air!        10
The massive capes and ruin’d towers seem conscious of the calm;
The fibrous sod and stunted trees are breathing heavy balm.
So still the night, these two long barques round Dunashad that glide
Must trust their oars, methinks not few, against the ebbing tide.
 Oh, some sweet mission of true love must urge them to the shore!        15
They bring some lover to his bride who sighs in Baltimore.  

All, all asleep within each roof along that rocky street,
And these must be the lover’s friends, with gently gliding feet—
A stifled gasp, a dreamy noise! “The roof is in a flame!”
From out their beds and to their doors rush maid and sire and dame,        20
And meet upon the threshold stone the gleaming sabre’s fall,
And o’er each black and bearded face the white or crimson shawl.
The yell of “Allah!” breaks above the prayer, and shriek, and roar:
O blessed God! the Algerine is lord of Baltimore!  

Then flung the youth his naked hand against the shearing sword;        25
Then sprung the mother on the brand with which her son was gor’d;
Then sunk the grandsire on the floor, his grand-babes clutching wild;
Then fled the maiden moaning faint, and nestled with the child:
But see! yon pirate strangled lies, and crush’d with splashing heel,
While o’er him in an Irish hand there sweeps his Syrian steel:        30
Though virtue sink, and courage fail, and misers yield their store,
There ’s one hearth well avenged in the sack of Baltimore.  

Midsummer morn in woodland nigh the birds begin to sing,
They see not now the milking maids,—deserted is the spring;
Midsummer day this gallant rides from distant Bandon’s town,        35
These hookers cross’d from stormy Skull, that skiff from Affadown;
They only found the smoking walls with neighbors’ blood besprent,
And on the strewed and trampled beach awhile they wildly went,
Then dash’d to sea, and pass’d Cape Clear, and saw, five leagues before,
The pirate-galley vanishing that ravaged Baltimore.        40  

Oh, some must tug the galley’s oar, and some must tend the steed;
This boy will bear a Scheik’s chibouk, and that a Bey’s jerreed.
Oh, some are for the arsenals by beauteous Dardanelles;
And some are in the caravan to Mecca’s sandy dells.
The maid that Bandon gallant sought is chosen for the Dey:        45
She’s safe—she’s dead—she stabb’d him in the midst of his Serai!
And when to die a death of fire that noble maid they bore,
She only smiled, O’Driscoll’s child; she thought of Baltimore.  

’T is two long years since sunk the town beneath that bloody band,
And all around its trampled hearths a larger concourse stand,        50
Where high upon a gallows-tree a yelling wretch is seen:
’T is Hackett of Dungarvan—he who steer’d the Algerine!
He fell amid a sullen shout with scarce a passing prayer,
For he had slain the kith and kin of many a hundred there.
Some mutter’d of MacMurchadh, who brought the Norman o’er;        55
Some curs’d him with Iscariot, that day in Baltimore.  

The Sack of Baltimore took place on 20 June 1631, when the village of Baltimore, West Cork, Ireland, was attacked by Algerian pirates from the North African Barbary Coast. The attack was the biggest single attack by the Barbary pirates on Ireland or Britain. The attack was led by a Dutch captain turned pirate, Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, also known as Murat Reis the Younger. Murat's force was led to the village by a man called Hackett, the captain of a fishing boat he had captured earlier, in exchange for his freedom. Hackett was subsequently hanged from the clifftop outside the village for his conspiracy.

Murat's crew, made up of Dutchmen, Algerians and Ottoman Turks, launched their covert attack on the remote village and they captured 108 English settlers, who worked a pilchard industry in the village, and some local Irish people. The attack was focused on the area of the village known to this day as the Cove. The villagers were put in irons and taken to a life of slavery in North Africa. Some prisoners were destined to live out their days as galley slaves, while others would spend long years in the seclusion of the Sultan's harem or within the walls of the Sultan's palace as laborers. At most three of them ever saw Ireland again.

Conspiracy theories abound relating to the raid. It has been suggested Sir Walter Coppinger orchestrated the raid to gain control of the village from the local Gaelic chieftain, Fineen O'Driscoll. It was O'Driscoll who had licenced the lucrative pilchard industry in Baltimore to the English settlers. In the aftermath of the raid, the remaining settlers moved to Skibereen.

This poem was written by Thomas Osborne Davis (1814-1845) in Victorian style that describes Jansen's raid on the village of Baltimore, Ireland. It was published by Edmund Clarence Stedman, ed. (1833–1908).  A Victorian Anthology, 1837–1895 (1895).

Jan Janszoon the Pirate

17th Century Rabat-Salee
A journey of about 17 miles from Tangier, south along the Atlantic Coast, brings the traveler to the present-day twin cities of Rabat-Salee. Rabat, with a population of 600,000 is the capital of the Kingdom of Morocco. ... On the north side is the city of Salee (pronounced Sally) which was, during the Middle Ages, the most important merchant port and center of trade in Morocco. Many attempts were made by French and English expeditions to purge this den of its infamous pirates. Finally, the French succeeded in the 17th century.

Jan Janszoon (Jansz or Jansen) was one of the most successful corsairs (pirates) of the Mediterranean Sea. As a young seaman, Jan Janszoon of the Netherlands ventured forth into the world and eventually won the favor of the Sultan of Morocco. The Sultan designated Jan as Murat Reis or Admiral of the Sultan's fleet at Salee (or Sally), Morocco. In addition, Jan received other honors such as the Governor of the Castle of El Qualidia. The plain truth is that Jan was a pirate leader who sailed the seas in the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries and was rewarded for his exploits by his employer.

Janszoon as Murat Reis
Jan, originally from the seaport city of Haarlem in the Netherlands, began his career as a Dutch privateer harassing Spanish shipping. He sailed with a letter of marque to capture pirates that operated from Dunkirk in Belgium. He found there wasn't enough profit in this, so he sailed south to the Barbary Coast, where he became a pirate and attacked ships of all countries. When he attacked a Spanish ship he flew the Dutch flag, when he attacked all others he flew the red half-moon of the Turks. He sailed with a small boat from La Rochelle in France, but he was captured in 1618 at Lanzarotte (or Lancerote), one of the Canary Isles, by Barbary pirates and taken to Algiers. After this, he became a member of the crew of De Veenboer, another notorious and very successful pirate who had become Admiral of the Fleet of Algiers in 1617. Sailing under De Veenboer, he managed to work himself up to steerer. When De Veenboer decided to stay ashore, Janszoon took over as a commander of his ship (1618 or 1619).

Jan had abandoned his wife and at least two children back in Haarlem, but he apparently had one of his sons, Antonie, with him in 1618 when he was captured. Jan embraced his new life, achieving success with the Admirals of the Turkish fleet. Jan is quoted as saying, roughly, "It's better to sail with the Moor than to sail for the Papists." Antonie grew to manhood in Morocco, training as a sailor.

While in Algiers, Jan converted to Islam and took a Moorish woman as a second wife, which is acceptable according to the Islamic faith. He also adopted the name of Murat Reis (Murat, Morat, Murate or Morato). In 1619, Jan took Salee, a port city in Morocco, as his base of operations. Algiers was no longer a suitable harbor at that time to sell the cargo and captured ships because Algeria had made peace with several European nations. Salee was the infamous home of the "Salee Rovers," notorious buccaneers who preyed on shipping in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic coasts and the Indian Ocean. The port was nominally subject to the Sultan of Morocco. With a fleet of 18 ships that were fast and well provisioned, Jan soon made Salee almost as feared as Dunkirk.

In 1620, Jan met a Dutch man-of-war in the area of Malaga, a port city in Spain. When the ship noticed the corsairs, it immediately altered its course and sailed directly after them while raising the red flag (this means that no quarter will be given). After seeing this, Jan turned and fled from the advancing ship. According to the Dutch consul in Algiers, the ship was not a man-of-war, but a courageous merchant who bluffed his way out of the meeting. Not long after this, in June and July of 1620, Janszoon was again capturing ships. Unlike his predecessor De Veenboer, Jan attacked ships of all nations and did not distinguish between Dutch and other ships.

Janszoon became a rich man between his Admiral perks, payments for anchorage, pilotage, other harbor dues and from the brokerage on stolen goods. He would become bored from time to time and sail off on an adventure.

Salee became very prosperous and consequently the pirates declared Salee an independent republic governed by fourteen pirates and a president who was also the Admiral of the Navy. Jan was elected the first President and Admiral. After an unsuccessful siege by Morocco, the Sultan eventually acknowledged its independence. The main sources of income of Salee were piracy, shipping and dealing in stolen property. Janszoon went privateering in the North Sea, the North Atlantic Sea and the Canal.

In 1622, he and his crew sailed into the English Channel to try his luck there. When they ran low on supplies in November 1623, they docked at the port of Veere, Holland, under the Moroccan flag claiming diplomatic privileges. The authorities could not deny the two ships access to Veere because at that time several peace treaties and trade agreements existed between the emperor of Morocco and the Dutch Republic. While there, the Dutch authorities trotted out his Dutch wife and children to persuade him to give up pirating. The same happened to many more on board. Rather than succeeding in luring any of the crew to leave their footloose ways, several young Dutchmen signed up for a lifetime of adventure and sailed off with Janszoon when he left in December, despite their being prohibited to do so by the Dutch authorities.

After Jan returned to Salee in 1624, Sultan Moulay Zaydan, who wanted a show of sovereignty over the area, appointed Jan Governor of Salee.  In February 1626, Janszoon was again in Holland, though under different circumstances. He had left Salee with 3 ships and had apparently captured a rich Spanish prize that he hoped to sell in the Dutch Republic. When his ships arrived in the North Sea they spotted what appeared to be a rich Dutch merchant ship with only a few men on guard. They went along side, but just when 50 of their crew had boarded the ship, the Dutch flag was struck and the Spanish flag went up instead.

They were immediately attacked by the crew who had hidden themselves. The ship turned out to be a Spanish privateer from Duinkerken. One ship was almost immediately disabled and forced to surrender. The other two ships barely managed to get away heavily damaged and with many dead and casualties. One of the ships managed to sail into the Maas River. The most heavily damaged one was able to reach Amsterdam, via the Isle of Texel, where they had a hard time getting medical aid. The ship in Amsterdam was sold and the pirates left with the ship that had entered the Maas early in 1627.

After this voyage, Janszoon was mainly active in Salee as a dealer in stolen goods. His reputation seems to have suffered from this less adventurous profession. Early in 1627, Janszoon hired a Danish slave to pilot them to Iceland where they raided Reykjavik, further north than he had ever previously sailed. In the harbor of the capital, he attacked a ship, but they only managed to steal some salted fish and a few hides, so they captured 400 Icelanders to be sold as slaves. On the way back, he also took a Dutch vessel and imprisoned more people. The people were sold as slaves in Salee.

The political climate changed in Salee toward the end of 1627, so Janszoon moved his family and operations back to Algiers and seems to have lived in Algiers and Tripoli for some time. In 1631, Jan again sailed north, this time to England and Ireland where they captured and imprisoned about 200 men who were sold as slaves in Algiers. The poem, "The Sack of Baltimore," was written about this raid in Ireland. {You may read the poem in another posting.} In Baltimore alone, he captured 108 men.

The Slave Market by Gustave Clarence Rudolphe Boulanger
From 1631 to 1640, not much is known about his actions. He may have been captured and held prisoner by the "Knights of Malta" for a short period, but whether this is true remains unclear. He apparently escaped because, in 1640, he was appointed by the Emperor of Morocco as the Governor of the Castle Maladia on the west coast of Morocco. Also in that year, his Dutch daughter, Lysbeth Janszoon (Lysbeth Jansen Van Haarlem), sailed to Morocco to visit him. The last thing that is known is that he and his daughter stayed at the Castle of Maladia until August 1641 when she returned to Holland. Nothing is known about him after 1641.

The European records say that Jan the Murat Reis came to a bad end, but this conclusion may have been fabricated to placate good, upright Christians of the time who would have found little propaganda value in the story of a man who had given up his faith and his family, found success with the infidel and died of peaceful old age in the bosom of his loving Muslim family.